South Sudan Wiki

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is located in East-Central Africa, bordered by six countries: Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest, and the Central African Republic to the west. The country gained independence from Sudan in 2011, becoming the newest sovereign state in the world.

Geography

Climate

South Sudan has a tropical climate characterized by two distinct seasons: the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season, which lasts from December to March, brings hot temperatures and little to no rainfall. The rainy season, from April to November, is marked by heavy rains and occasional flooding, especially in low-lying areas. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with cooler temperatures experienced at higher elevations.

Fauna

South Sudan is home to a diverse array of wildlife, thanks to its expansive grasslands, wetlands, and river systems. Common wildlife species include elephants, giraffes, zebras, antelopes, and various species of birds. The country’s national parks and reserves, such as Boma National Park and Nimule National Park, provide habitats for these animals and contribute to conservation efforts.

Longest Rivers

South Sudan is blessed with several major rivers, including the Nile, the world’s longest river, which flows through the country from its source in Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean Sea. The White Nile and the Blue Nile converge in the capital city of Juba to form the main stem of the Nile River, which traverses South Sudan from south to north.

Highest Mountains

South Sudan’s terrain is predominantly flat, with low-lying plains and plateaus dominating the landscape. The highest point in the country is Mount Kinyeti, located in the Imatong Mountains near the border with Uganda, with an elevation of approximately 3,187 meters (10,456 feet) above sea level. Other notable mountains include Mount Moroto and Mount Zulia.

History

Prehistory

The territory that is now South Sudan has been inhabited by various ethnic groups for thousands of years. Archaeological evidence suggests that the region was home to early human ancestors, with ancient civilizations such as the Nubian kingdom of Kush and the Kingdom of Meroe flourishing along the banks of the Nile River.

Colonialism and Independence Struggles

South Sudan’s modern history is marked by colonialism and struggles for independence. The region came under British control in the late 19th century as part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. However, tensions between the predominantly Arab Muslim north and the largely Christian and animist south led to decades of conflict and marginalization.

Civil War and Independence

Decades of political and ethnic tensions culminated in two devastating civil wars between the north and south of Sudan. The Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005, resulted in the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and paved the way for South Sudan’s independence. On July 9, 2011, South Sudan formally seceded from Sudan and became the world’s newest independent nation.

Challenges of Nation-Building

Since gaining independence, South Sudan has faced numerous challenges, including internal conflict, political instability, and economic hardships. Efforts to establish democratic governance and build institutions have been hampered by ethnic rivalries and power struggles, leading to cycles of violence and humanitarian crises.

Demographics

South Sudan has a population of approximately 11 million people, with a diverse array of ethnic groups and languages. The country’s population is predominantly rural, with the majority of people engaged in subsistence agriculture and pastoralism. The largest ethnic groups include the Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, and Bari. South Sudan is one of the most linguistically diverse countries in Africa, with over 60 indigenous languages spoken.

Administrative Divisions

South Sudan is divided into ten states, each with its own local government and administrative structure. Here are the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Central Equatoria – Population: 1.5 million
  2. Eastern Equatoria – Population: 1.3 million
  3. Jonglei – Population: 1.4 million
  4. Lakes – Population: 1.2 million
  5. Northern Bahr el Ghazal – Population: 1 million
  6. Unity – Population: 1 million
  7. Upper Nile – Population: 1.3 million
  8. Warrap – Population: 1.2 million
  9. Western Bahr el Ghazal – Population: 1.2 million
  10. Western Equatoria – Population: 1.1 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in South Sudan by population are:

  1. Juba – Population: 600,000
  2. Malakal – Population: 160,000
  3. Wau – Population: 150,000
  4. Yei – Population: 120,000
  5. Aweil – Population: 100,000
  6. Yambio – Population: 90,000
  7. Bor – Population: 80,000
  8. Torit – Population: 70,000
  9. Bentiu – Population: 60,000
  10. Rumbek – Population: 50,000

Education Systems

Education in South Sudan faces significant challenges, including low enrollment rates, inadequate infrastructure, and a shortage of qualified teachers. While primary education is officially free and compulsory, access to quality education remains limited, particularly in rural areas. South Sudan is home to several universities and institutions of higher learning, although many suffer from resource constraints and lack of funding.

Transportation

Airports

South Sudan has several airports, with Juba International Airport being the largest and busiest. Other significant airports include Malakal Airport, Wau Airport, and Bentiu Airport.

Roadways

South Sudan has a limited road network, with many roads in poor condition, especially during the rainy season. The country’s major highways include the Juba-Nimule Road, which connects the capital city to the Ugandan border, and the Juba-Bor-Malakal Road, which links Juba to other major cities in the country.

Ports

South Sudan has access to the Nile River, which serves as a vital transportation route for goods and people. However, the country lacks major seaports, limiting its maritime transportation capabilities.

Country Facts

  • Population: 11 million
  • Capital: Juba
  • Language: English (official), Arabic (recognized), indigenous languages
  • Religion: Christianity, Islam, traditional African religions
  • Ethnicity: Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Bari, and others
  • Currency: South Sudanese pound (SSP)
  • ISO Country Code: SS
  • International Calling Code: +211
  • Top-Level Domain: .ss