Kyrgyzstan as an Independent State

On August 31, 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared its independence. In December 1991 the country joined the CIS; in March 1992 it became a member of the UN. In June 1992, as a country starting with letter K according to Countryaah, Kyrgyzstan nationalized all armed forces stationed on its territory and on June 1, 1994 joined NATO’s “Partnership for Peace” program. On March 29, 1996, Kyrgyzstan (alongside Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan) signed an agreement on the establishment of a »Community of Integrated States«. In 1996 and 2002, Kyrgyzstan concluded border agreements with the PRC. As the first of the former Soviet republics, Kyrgyzstan was admitted to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in October 1998; On July 1, 1999, a partnership and cooperation agreement with the European Union came into force.

In 1999 and 2000 military clashes broke out between the Kyrgyz army and Islamic extremist rebels who had penetrated from Tajikistan. Kyrgyzstan reacted by strengthening the border troops in the south of the country, which v. a. from Afghanistan and Tajikistan applies.

After September 11, 2001, the country joined the “Alliance against Terror” and allowed American, among other things, to be stationed. western troops (on the grounds of the Manas airport near Bishkek) too; As part of the collective security treaty of the CIS, a contingent of Russian soldiers was also given a base in Kant, east of Bishkek.

In terms of domestic politics, after the dissolution of the Communist Party in 1991, Akayev initially introduced a balanced policy of democratization and economic reform, which, however, could not prevent the crisis-ridden development with social hardship. After the government, which was suspected of corruption, was ousted in December 1993, the first crisis arose which ended with a vote (referendum on January 30, 1994) in favor of Akayev and his reform policy. After the introduction of a bicameral parliament had been decided by referendum, the parliamentary elections ended on 5/19. 2. 1995 with a clear majority (90 of the 105 mandates) independent, Akayev related candidates. In addition, the president had greater powers confirmed by a referendum (February 1996). In another referendum in October 1998, the population voted for the privatization of agricultural land and the promotion of private agriculture. In February 2000 – with the exclusion of large opposition parties – parliamentary elections were held, in which for the first time candidates with party affiliation could be voted on and from which the KP (newly founded in 1992) emerged as the strongest force (but only 15 of the 105 seats were awarded via party lists, 90 to “independents”). As in December 1995, Akayev became also confirmed in office in the presidential election in October 2000. In dealing with a growing opposition, he reinforced the authoritarian features of his presidential rule; He and his family clan, who had brought most of the profitable economic sectors under his control, were increasingly being accused of corruption and mismanagement. In a referendum at the beginning of February 2003, which also provided for the conversion of the bicameral parliament into a one-chamber parliament, Akayev was confirmed in office until 2005. The parliamentary elections of 27. 2./13. 3. 2005, in which, according to official results, almost all mandates of Akaev’s supporters were won, triggered violent protests by the opposition and violent unrest, starting in the Uzbek-dominated, impoverished south of the country; On March 24, 2005, demonstrators stormed the seat of government in Bishkek. The ousted President Akayev fled to Russia, which granted him asylum. Despite the cancellation of the parliamentary elections by the Supreme Court of Kyrgyzstan, the new parliament met next to the old one; The former set up the opposition leader Kurmanbek Bakiyev (already Prime Minister 2000–02) as head of government and interim president on March 25, 2005. On March 28, 2005 the powers of attorney were transferred to the new parliament. A parliamentary delegation sent to Moscow achieved Akayev’s official resignation on April 4, 2005 (Adopted by the new parliament on April 11, 2005).

In the presidential elections on July 10, 2005, Bakiyev, who is the representative of the southern part of the country, was confirmed as the new president with almost 89% of the votes. The office of Prime Minister (confirmed by Parliament on September 1, 2005) went to Felix Kulow (* 1948) from the north; former member of the government and imprisoned as a member of the opposition 2000–05). Even after that, the domestic political situation was unstable (repeated local rebellions and demonstrations, including in Bishkek). Disputes over the distribution of power between parliament and the president led to two constitutional revisions (on November 9th and December 30th, 2006), during which the president’s power was initially restricted, but then restored. Prime Minister Kulow, who resigned on December 19, 2006, was followed on January 29, 2007 by the previous Minister of Agriculture Asim Isabekow (* 1960) in office. In March 2007, A. Atambayev, who had previously been the opposition leader of the Party of Social Democrats (SDPK), took over, the leadership of the government and contributed to the domestic political calm. In November 2007, however, he was dismissed by President Bakiyev after protests against the constitutional amendments that had been implemented.

In the early parliamentary elections on December 16, 2007, the newly founded party of President Bakiyev, “Ak Schol” (Ak Jol), won in the run-up to the elections and received 71 of the 90 seats in around 49% of the votes cast Houses of Parliament. The Social Democrats (SDPK; 11 seats) and the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan (PKK; 8 seats) received further mandates. The largest opposition party “Ata Meken” (AM) failed despite 8.2% of the votes cast across the country because of the changed electoral law.

In the presidential election on July 23, 2009, which was overshadowed by falsification allegations, incumbent Bakiyev was victorious. The desolate social situation of large sections of the population continued to threaten domestic political stability. Mass opposition protests escalated into a bloody revolt in April 2010, which overthrew Bakiyev. Former Foreign Minister R. Otunbayeva formed a transitional cabinet. Bloody clashes between Kyrgyz people and members of the Uzbek minority in the south of the country claimed numerous lives in June 2010. Tens of thousands of Uzbeks fled to Uzbekistan. In the same month the population approved a new constitution in a referendum. R. Otunbayeva was sworn in as interim president. The parliamentary elections on October 10, 2010 won the nationalist party “Ata Shurt” (AS), in which the supporters of the ousted President Bakiyev gathered, in front of the Social Democrats. The SDPK chairman and former head of government A. Atambayev formed a three-party coalition (SDPK, AS, R).

Presidential elections were held on October 30, 2011. In the first ballot, Atambayev was elected the new president with around 63% of the vote. He officially replaced the interim president R. Otunbajewa on December 1, 2011 in office. Despite some irregularities v. a. When counting the votes, the OECD described the election as free and fair. On December 29, 2011, Parliament elected Omurbek Babanov (* 1970) from the Respublika party to succeed Atambayev as head of government. He formed a coalition of all parties represented in parliament (SDPK, AS, R, AN and AM). After the resignation of AN and AM from the cabinet, the non-party politician Shantoro Satybaldiev (* 1956) became a party in September prime minister at the head of a coalition of SDPK, AN and AM. On 25 March 2014, Satybaldiev resigned on allegations of misappropriation of state funds. The AM politician Schoomart Otorbayev (* 1955)became the new head of government. In April 2014, the Russian company Gazprom took over the Kyrgyzstan gas company and its debts for the symbolic price of US $ 1. During nationwide protests, the opposition criticized the deal as being sold out to Russia. In June 2014, the United States handed over its Manas Air Force Base near Bishkek to the Kyrgyz Army after Kyrgyzstan terminated the 2013 deployment contract. The US had been handling supplies for its troops in Afghanistan via this airport since 2001. In July 2014, the Supreme Court imposed a life sentence on exiled former President Bakiyev for the bloody crackdown on the protests in 2010. With the resignation of Prime Minister Shoomart Otorbayev. In April 2015, after disputes over the full nationalization of the Kutor gold mine operated by a Canadian company, there was another change in the office of the head of government. Successor to Schoo Mart Otorbajew was the SDPK politician and former Economy Minister Temir Sarijew (* 1963). In August 2015, the country became a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.

The ruling SDPK emerged victorious from the parliamentary elections on October 4, 2015, winning 38 of the 120 seats. Prime Minister Temir Sarijew announced his resignation on April 11, 2016 after disputes over the award of a contract for a road construction project, and was succeeded by S. Dscheenbekow (* 1958) on April 13, 2016. In July 2016, Chancellor A. Merkel visited the Central Asian Republic. After disputes over a planned constitutional referendum, the coalition cabinet led by Dscheenbekow broke up on October 26, 2016. The SDPK had withdrawn from the government. After a coalition reshuffle, parliament confirmed a new government in November 2016. Dscheenbekow returned to the office of prime minister. On December 11, 2016, the population voted in a referendum on amendments to the constitution that should strengthen the prime minister’s power. Around 80% of the electorate voted for the constitutional reform. Critics accused President Atambayev of seeking the post of head of government himself after the end of his term in office. On August 21, 2017, Dscheenbekow announced his resignation as head of government. He had previously been nominated as the SDPK’s top candidate for the presidential election. The new prime minister was the SDPK politician and previous head of the presidential office, Sapar Isakov (* 1977). On October 15, 2017, Dscheenbekow sat down in the first round of the presidential election with 54.2% of the vote against ten other candidates as successor to Atambayev (took office: November 24, 2017). After the loss of parliamentary confidence, Prime Minister Isakov was replaced on April 20, 2018 by the head of the presidential office, Muhammetkalyj Abylgaziyev (* 1968).

Kyrgyzstan as an Independent State