North Crimean Canal

North Crimean Canal, irrigation canal in southern Ukraine, over 400 km long; branches off from the Kachowka reservoir of the Dnieper and leads through the north of the Crimean peninsula to Kerch.

Crimean Tatars

Crimean Tatars, Turkic-speaking people, originally settled in the Crimea; it was formed in the course of the disintegration of the Mongol-ruled Golden Horde mainly from subjugated Cumans and other Turkic tribes; Europeanized by mixing with Genoese, Crimean Goths and Slavs. Strongly decimated by emigration to Turkey since 1783, around 220,000 Crimean Tatars were deported to Central Asia in 1944 (on charges of collaboration with the Germans), especially to the desert-like Mubarek steppe southeast of Bukhara (Uzbekistan), many of whom perished (to own information 10%). According to a resolution of November 28, 1989, the approximately 500,000 Crimean Tatars are now allowed to return to their ancestral homeland. Their number therefore rose sharply in the Crimea in the 1990s (1988: 17,500; 1994: 260,000; 2008: around 266,000). Most of them settled in and around Simferopol and in the areas around Staryi Krym, settled in Bakhchysarai and south of it and on the entire south coast. Smaller groups exist in Bulgaria, Romania, Poland and the USA. The descendants of the Crimean Tatars who emigrated to Turkey are estimated to be over 5 million; however, they are largely absorbed by the Turkish people.

The Crimean Tatars profess Sunni Islam and, before they were expelled from the Crimea, settled as farmers, ranchers and fishermen, particularly on the slopes of the Jaila Mountains.

Language: The written language of the Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar, belongs to the northwest group of Turkic languages. Since many Turkic dialects were spoken in the Crimea (e.g. Ottoman in the south), it was initially inconsistent; in the meantime there is a certain standardization. The Crimean Tatar was originally written in Arabic, since 1928 in Latin, since 1938 in Cyrillic alphabet.

Literature: In addition to the Crimean Tatar folk poetry, art literature has existed since the 19th century, predominantly educational literature under Russian-European influence. The magazine »Tärdjüman« (»The interpreter«, edited by Ismail Gazprinski) was important for the cultural unity of the Turkic peoples living in the Soviet Union.

Crimean War

Crimean War, the war that the Ottoman Empire and at its side Great Britain and France (since 1855 also Sardinia) waged against Russia in 1853 / 54–56.

The causes of the Crimean War can be seen in the political situation in the Middle East, where the decline of the Ottoman Empire gave rise to conflicts of interest between the great powers, especially between Russia and Great Britain (oriental question). The occasion was an ultimatum from the Russian Tsar Nicholas I addressed to the Ottoman government (the “gate”), which it then rejected with British and French support .; he demanded that the Russian protectorate over the Orthodox Christians of the Ottoman Empire be recognized. When a Russian corps moved into the Danube principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, the Porte declared war on October 4, 1853, and the Western powers followed on March 28, 1854. On September 14th, an expeditionary force landed in the Crimea, where the military decision was brought about in several battles and especially through the 11-month siege of Sevastopol (since October 17, 1854) (first trench warfare in modern history). The Russians, who could not organize sufficient supplies without a railroad, gave up Sevastopol on September 9, 1855. The military events in the Crimea were, in addition to a blockade of the Russian Baltic Sea ports, flanked by an alliance of the Western powers with Austria (December 2, 1854), which tied strong Russian forces through its threatening attitude without entering the war, as well as through the entry of Sardinia (January 26, 1855), which wanted to secure the French support of the national Italian goals. On November 28, 1855, the Russians took the Turkish fortress of Kars. In the Peace of Paris (March 30, 1856) Russia, which was facing (mainly economic) collapse, renounced the protectorate over the Danube principalities and the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, ceded the mouths of the Danube and southern Bessarabia to the Principality of Moldova, recognized them Freedom of navigation on the Danube under international control and returned to Kars. The Black Sea has been demilitarized; Russia undertook not to keep any navy or fortresses here.

According to allcitycodes, the continental preponderance of Russia around the middle of the 19th century was broken by the Crimean War; the defeat gave rise to internal reforms (peasant liberation, railway construction). In Europe, the Peace of Paris was celebrated as a victory of liberalism over autocracy. The European concert, officially named for the last time during the Peace of Paris, had blown up; An enmity arose especially between Austria and Russia, to which Bismarck owed the backing of Russia in 1866 and 1870.


Simferopol, capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, on the Salgyr, in the transition area of ​​the northern Crimean steppe to the northern flank of the Crimean Mountains, Ukraine, de facto since March 2014 with Russia, 332,600 residents, of which around two thirds are Russians; Ukrainian Orthodox and Russian Orthodox Archbishop’s Seat; National Tauride University (founded in 1918), medical university and other universities, research institutes (including archaeological institute, seismic station), art museum, Crimean Tatar theater, puppet theater, philharmonic orchestra, historical park (laid out in 1798 by the German explorer P. S. Pallas); Mechanical and plant engineering (including supplier parts for agricultural machinery, electric motors), equipment manufacturing, electrotechnical-electronic, chemical and plastics industries, as well as light and food industries (textiles, clothing, shoes, leather goods, wines, essential oils, tobacco, fruit and vegetable processing), Software development; Transport hub, international airport; Tourism. 25 km south of Simferopol (in Nautschny) astrophysical observatory.

Simferopol was founded in 1784 on the site of the Tatar settlement Akmetschet as the administrative center of the territories acquired by Russia in 1783 (from 1802 Tauride Governorate); 1921–45 capital of the ASSR Crimea in the RSFSR, 1954 capital of the Crimea region of the Ukrainian SSR.

Crimean War