Paleochristian era. – Christianity had first penetrated western Switzerland and Rezia (altar reliefs of China Germano in Geneva around 400); then the Alemanni, immigrants in the northern and eastern regions of today’s Switzerland (the occupation of the plateau was completed around 470), only slowly merged their own culture with the already existing one permeated with Roman elements.
Remains of buildings remain in the church of St. Peter in Geneva, Romainmôtier and St. Moritz. The representation of the good shepherd, an ambo barrier (7th century) in St. Moritz and another in Romainmôtier are the first examples of Christian sculptures in Switzerland, as well as a reliquary and a sardonic vase in St. Moritz from the goldsmith’s art. the reliquary of Bishop Altheus in Sion. The relations with the contemporary culture of the Alemannic region give light to precious finds of tombs (especially goldsmiths and some rare objects from other branches of the minor arts, in metal plates, ceramics, in the Basel maseo) and the prolongation of the existence of settlements and already Roman cities.
Merovingian and Carolingian periods. – Precious works of art from the Merovingian era, in which Christianity took new roots thanks to the founding of the monasteries Moutier-Grandval, St. Gallen, Disentis, Pfäfers and Lucerne, are the pastoral care of St. German in Delsberg, and the gilded bronze with portrait busts of Lombard princes from Alvaschein in Chur. More copious and, at the same time, more important traces left in Switzerland by the vigorous development of culture under the Carolingians.
Especially in the convent of St. Gall a high level art flourished; The western crypt of St. Gall, in Serior Carolingian style, and the ideal project of a Carolingian convent executed around 830 (parchment plan in the convent library of China Rooster). The manuscripts of St. Gall are famous; the Irish ones and, above all, the Folchart psalter (872), the Psalterium aureum and the Evangelium longum, whose binding consists of two richly carved ivory plaques of the monk Tutilo (died after 912). Next to St. Gallen, the female monastery of St. John the Baptist in Münster (Graubünden), built between 780 and 786, is of great importance. the frescoes, with scenes from the life of Paris and Absalom, discovered in 1908-1909, are now in the Zurich museum, but the bas-reliefs are still preserved there. Stylistically similar to the Münster building are the churches, all in Grisons, of Disentis, Müstail, Pleif and the foundations of the apses of the cathedral of Chur. Also from the Carolingian period are the remains of the crypt in the collegiate church of Zurich, founded in 853, as well as the marble slabs in the Schänis crypt,
Romanesque and Gothic periods. – The separation of Switzerland today, which took place following the division of the Carolingian Empire, had a decisive effect on the further development of culture and art. This influence soon manifested itself in Romanesque architecture. The intense ecclesiastical construction activity, due to the monastic reform of Cluny, the multiplication of ecclesiastical benefits in the territory and the increasingly widespread importance assumed by the city bishops, had relations with Swabian architecture in the Alemannic and Rhaetian regions then belonging to the Germanic Empire, while in western Switzerland the architecture is marked by forms coming from southern France and Burgundy and, in the Canton of Ticino, from Lombardy.
The earliest preserved Romanesque churches are those of the Cluniac priories of Payerne, Romainmôtier, Saint-Sulpice and the Bernese country churches of Einigen, Scherzlingen, Ammoldingen, Spiez and Wimmsis, followed, in chronological order, by the collegiate churches of Beromünster (the interior was redone in Baroque style) and of Schönenwerd, the former monastic church in Stein on the Rhine, the church of All Saints in Schaffhausen and Saint-Pierre de Clages (Valais). In the century XII began the construction of the cathedrals, still preserved today, of Geneva, Lausanne, Sion, Chur and Basel, then finished in the Gothic period. Even in the sec. XII date back to the church of St. Catherine in Valère near Sion, the cathedral of Zurich, the collegiate churches of Saint-Ursanne, Neuchâtel, Biasca and Schänis, China Arbogato in Oberwinterthur, the former Benedictine churches of Schöntal (Basel) and Grandson (Vaud), of Ravecchia (13th century) and of China Niccolò in Giornico. The latter in the Canton of Ticino are evidently the work of Lombard workers.
While in cathedrals the Romanesque style took on singularly rich and elaborate aspects, the Cistercians already implemented the new severe principles of Gothic art in their buildings. The monastic church of Hauterive (12th century, near Friborg) was built in dependence on the abbey church of Fontenay (1148, Côte-d’Or), followed by the churches of Bonmont (Vaud), of Frienisberg (Bern), of Wettingen (Aargau) ; rebuilt in the Baroque period), of Kappel (Zurich) and of Maigrauge (Friborg).
The contemporary coexistence of old and new stylistic forms, determined on the one hand by the rapid spread of new ideas and, on the other, by the tenacious attachment to tradition, is one of the most outstanding characteristics of Swiss art of all time; and can be found in almost all the buildings of the XII and XIII centuries. Only the churches built in a short time by the Franciscans and Dominicans during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Basel, Bern, Friborg, Lausanne, Locarno, Lucerne, St. Gallen and Zurich possess a homogeneous character.
Character of the Swiss art of the fifteenth century was to be typically bourgeois and urban. The construction of the imposing towers of the cathedrals of Basel, of Zurich and of the church of China Niccolò in Friborg was then completed; and the church of St. Oswald in Zug, the Wasserkirche in Zurich, St. John in Schaffhausen, the parish churches of Burgdorf, Orbe and Zofingen were built in the Gothic style. The period of medieval ecclesiastical architecture ends with the construction of the cathedral of St. Vincent in Bern and the church of St. Theodulus in Sion.
Secular architecture from the Middle Ages is represented, especially in western Switzerland, by numerous fortresses and castles. Romanesque remains are in the castle of Neuchâtel; and notable constructions are the castles of Chillon, Champvent, Grandson, Estavayer, Vufflens, Lenzburg, Regensberg, Moersburg, Leuk, Bellinzona and Locarno. Even today the gates, towers and walls that belonged to the ancient urban fortifications or flanked the medieval streets, determine the architectural appearance of Freiburg, Murten, Aarau, Zofingen, Mellingen and Bremgarten; important remains remain in Lucerne, Bern and Basel.
Sculpture in Switzerland was also in continuous relationship, if not in direct dependence with neighboring countries; in the Romanesque period more particularly with Lombard and French sculpture, in the Gothic period with the latter and with the Germanic, while in the Italian regions it belonged to the art of the peninsula.
Among the oldest and most notable works of art of Romanesque sculpture in Switzerland are a Crucifixion (by the Basel bishop Landelous, 12th century; Aarau); the relief of the apostles and that of St. Vincent in the cathedral of Basel and the gold altarpiece, probably donated by the emperor Henry II in 1019 to the cathedral of Basel (Paris, Cluny museum). From the 12th and 13th centuries belong the St. Gallen gate of the cathedral of Basel, the portals of Saint-Ursanne, of Chur, of the cathedral of Zurich, the richly carved capitals in the cathedrals of Basel, of Geneva, of Chur, of Zurich, the church of Valère near Sion and the parish church of Grandson. Also worthy of mention are the stucco sculptures of St. John in Münster (Graubünden) and the rare examples of Romanesque carvings (mostly from Valais and Grisons) in the Zurich museum.
Relatively modest, in number and importance, are the sculptures of the Gothic period: the means for an impressive development of sculpture were lacking; moreover, the iconoclastic fury at the beginning of the Reformation destroyed many sculptures. The western portal, the sculptures of the tower and the equestrian figures of the cathedral of Basel (13th-14th century), the portal of the apostles of the cathedral of Lausanne (13th century), the portals (14th-15th century) have been preserved. and the “sepulcher” (15th century) of China Niccolò in Friborg, the western portal of the cathedral of China Vincenzo in Bern (end of the 15th century) and the plastic decoration of the church of China Osvaldo in Zug (end of the 15th century).. XV). Testimonies of the feudal culture of the Middle Ages are the tombstones, including that of Queen Anne in the Cathedral of Basel,
Gothic wood carving was preserved on site only in the Catholic regions (mainly in the Valais: altars in Glis and Münster), in the Grisons (Chur, Churwalden, Stürvis) and in central Switzerland; valuable collections can be seen in the museums of Zurich, Bern, Basel, Freiburg, Sion and St. Gallen. Already in the century. XIV reflections of contemporary Swabian sculpture appear in the Alemannic region; in the sec. In fact, the importation of altars carved from Swabia (S. Maria Calanca, now in Basle, Ossogna, etc.) has been ascertained in remote places in the Grisons and in the Canton of Ticino up to the beginning of the 16th century. The works (15th century) from the surroundings of Basel belong to the sphere of art that flourished along the upper reaches of the Rhine. Consumed technical skill and refined taste reveal the Gothic choir stalls. Those of Lausanne (cathedral) and Friborg (church of the Franciscans) date back to the thirteenth century; to the sec. XIV those of Kappel, Friborg (Maigrauge), Lausanne (church of China Francesco); to the sec. XV those of Basel (cathedral, charterhouse), Coira, Zug, Friborg (cathedral of China Niccolò), Hauterive, Romont; to the sec. XVI those of Moudon, Estavayer and Bern.
Remains of medieval frescoes are frequent in Switzerland. The simple walls and vaults of Romanesque and Gothic churches were generally decorated with figurative and ornamental compositions. Even in mural painting the Italian regions are a branch of the art of Lombardy.
The oldest examples belong precisely to the Canton of Ticino (churches of Negrentino, Biasca, Santa Maria di Torello, Rovio). In Zillis (Graubünden) a work of singular value is preserved: a Romanesque wooden ceiling (12th century) with 150 painted panels. Of the sec. XIII fragments of frescoes also remain in other places in Switzerland: in Friborg (church of St. John), Kappel, Saint-Sulpice, Saint-Ursanne, Zurich (cathedral); in the castle of Chillon there is also an example of a fresco with a profane subject. From the century 14th onwards wall paintings are found throughout Switzerland, but most of these paintings are not done in the actual fresco technique, and only rarely are they by notable artists.
In the “minor” arts, painting on glass was important: this is demonstrated by the stained glass windows in the cathedral of Lausanne (circa 1270), the stained glass windows in Wettingen (circa 1290), those donated by the Habsburgs to the convent Königsfelden (circa 1320 -35), the series of stained glass windows in Kappel, Münchenbuchsee, Oberkirch and Staufberg. Valuable goldsmith works are preserved in the treasures of the churches of St. Moritz, Sion, Engelberg, Chur, Beromünster and Basel (the latter treasure has been partially dispersed in foreign museums). The flourishing of indigenous textile art is evidenced by the frontal of Königsfelden (Bern, Historical Museum) and by the collections of Basel and St. Gallen. The miniature was mainly cultivated in the monasteries of Engelberg, Einsiedeln, Rheinau, and St. Gallen.
Renaissance. – The transition from medieval culture to the Renaissance era occurred through a discontinuous and apparently confused process, which can also be seen in the transitions of the Carolingian style to Romanesque and Gothic. However, since the beginning of the century. XV, a concordance of characters that corresponded to new cultural needs is increasingly noticeable. Through the struggles with Austria, Burgundy and the Germanic Empire, a country had arisen, with a compact structure, independent towards the outside and pacified in the interior, whose population, having become aware of its power, tried to satisfy the his new spiritual needs by adhering to the ideals of the profane culture of the Renaissance. The new artistic activity took place parallel to the persistent action of the medieval tradition,
Richly sculpted fountains rose in the streets and squares of the city (the most beautiful examples are in Basel, Bern, Friborg and Lucerne), municipal buildings (in Basel, Friborg, Sursee, Zug) were built; the interiors were sumptuously decorated with carved ceilings (Zurich, Museum; Chillon and Locarno castles; Sion, Supersaxhaus; municipal buildings in Aarau and Zug) and furnished with pewter and silver furniture and dishes; everything that was used for domestic purposes was carefully worked.
Panel painting was also put at the service of the new needs. From the beginning of the 15th century only a few works remain, mostly from the regions close to the upper course of the Rhine; among the oldest and most important is the Madonna delle fragole (Solothurn). The cities, in continuous development, seem to have offered favorable conditions to artists; at the time of the council the Swabian master Konrad Witz worked in Basel, whose works (partly preserved in Basel and Geneva) are among the most important of ancient German painting. A generation later, Martin Schongauer of Colmar (Alsace) exerted a profound influence in many parts of Switzerland; towards the end of the century, Alberto Dürer worked for some time in Basel. In 1515 the young brothers Ambrogio and Hans Holbein came from Augsburg to Basel (drawings and paintings in the Basel museum); alongside them worked the Swiss Urs Graf (Basel; known above all as a draftsman), in Zurich and elsewhere the various anonymous masters called “masters with the carnation” Hans Leu father and son (Zurich), Niklaus Manuel in Bern and Hans Fries in Freiburg. The Holbeins, Graf and Manuel also gave drawings for book and stained glass illustrations; to them the typographic art of Basel owes its artistic importance and glass painting in most of Switzerland the breadth of style, then carried out with its own characters by Lux Zeiner in Zurich, by Anthoni Glaser in Basel (Basel, municipal building) and by Hans Funk in Bern (Bern, historical museum). Other series of stained glass windows in the chapel of the Château de Pérolles near Fiiburg and in the church of Jegenstorf. In addition to these works, the illustrations of the Toggenburg Bible, the Tschachtlan Chronicle and the Schilling Chronicles of Bern and Lucerne should be remembered as typically Swiss artistic expressions.
After the collapse of the politics of great power, following the battle of Marignano (1515), and the spiritual upheaval of the Reformation, art limited itself to dealing only with subjects of bourgeois-profane content in the Reformed regions hostile to the cult of images. The heroic pride of the Swiss Confederates and the dramatic accent of their art had disappeared; on the other hand, the minor arts had wide possibilities of development, especially glass painting.
Many names of artists (Ringler, Murer, Lindtmayer, Han) and of late-century workshops are known. XVI in Basel, Bern, Schaffhausen and Zurich; many stained glass windows and preparatory drawings are preserved in Swiss and foreign museums (Paris Louvre and London). In addition to the small windows for private houses, for the headquarters of the guilds and for municipal buildings (in Stein on the R., Unterstammhein, Lausanne), those of the cloisters of Muri (today in Aarau) and of Wettingen should be mentioned. Most of the portraits remain of the panel painting. Among the best known painters are Hans Hug Kluber and Hans Bock (Basel). Hans Asper (Zurich) and Tobias Stimmer (Schaffhausen and Strasbourg); the life of the latter, as well as of Joseph Heinz (from Basel who died in Prague) and the engraver Jost Ammann (from Zurich, died in Nuremberg) shows the unfavorable conditions that Swiss artists had at the time at home. Also in the field of secular and sacred architecture there is a strong setback. In the region north of the Alps, only a few buildings can be mentioned: the palace of the Ritter family in Lucerne, the Abthof in Wil, the Geldenzunft and the Spiesshof in Basel, the Ittingen Charterhouse. Also noteworthy are the fortifications of Solothurn and Schaffhausen. Rare examples of sculpture are the figures of Daniel Heintz in the town hall of Basel and on the portal of the cathedral of St. Vincent in Bern. the Geldenzunft and the Spiesshof in Basel, the Ittingen Charterhouse. Also noteworthy are the fortifications of Solothurn and Schaffhausen. Rare examples of sculpture are the figures of Daniel Heintz in the town hall of Basel and on the portal of the cathedral of St. Vincent in Bern. the Geldenzunft and the Spiesshof in Basel, the Ittingen Charterhouse. Also noteworthy are the fortifications of Solothurn and Schaffhausen. Rare examples of sculpture are the figures of Daniel Heintz in the town hall of Basel and on the portal of the cathedral of St. Vincent in Bern.
New artistic aspects appeared in other parts of Switzerland only at the end of the century. XVI, when in the reformed regions industrial development was affirmed by the refugees, and in the Catholic ones the Counter-Reformation began, and the arts favored the oligarchies and the military nobility enriched in foreign service. We remember the Hofkirche in Lucerne, the Jesuit church in Pruntrut, the churches in Sursee and Stans, the municipal buildings in Lucerne and Solothurn; furthermore, among the private buildings, the “maison de Marval” in Neuchâtel, the Ital Reding house in Schwyz, the Freuler palace in Naefels and the Stockalper palace in Brig. Characteristic products of this era are the richly carved choir stalls in Wettingen, Beromünster, Lucerne and Basel (museum),
Quite apart was the artistic activity of the Italian regions, which continued to produce countless artists and craftsmen – architects, master builders and masons; sculptors and stonecutters – especially of the Lugano lands, the activity of which spread throughout Italy and kept those regions in the context of Italian Renaissance art, to which they contributed with their ingenuity and manual work. Suffice it to recall among the Ticino monuments the architecture and sculptures of the Lugano cathedral, the paintings of China Maria in Selva in Locarno (1400), the many votive frescoes scattered around the churches, and the works of great Lombard masters such as Bramantino. and the Luino in China Maria del Sasso near Locarno, and in China Maria degli Angeli in Lugano.
Baroque period. – Italian Switzerland immediately participated in the fortune of the Baroque forms; he contributed to it with the work of Carlo Maderno and Borromini, from Bissone, with the activity in Italy, in southern Germany, in Austria of numerous builders, sculptors, painters and ornatists, especially from German-speaking Switzerland; the engraver Matthaeus Merian and others were important in Germany. At home the Baroque style was accepted rather late, indeed only after the middle of the century. XVII, when the Jesuits and the Capuchins began their construction activity in the Catholic regions and the Baroque art reached full development there.
The earliest examples are the central-plan Baroque buildings of the Visitation church in Freiburg and the pilgrim church in Buttisholz (Lucerne), followed by the sumptuous longitudinal-plan buildings of the Jesuit churches in Lucerne, Brig, Solothurn, etc. A special type of rural church developed in the Protestant regions (Sigriswil, Gsteig near Interlaken, Herrliberg). In the cities the municipal buildings of Zurich, Lenzburg, Thun, Lausanne, Sion and new imposing stately homes (the Markgräflerhof in Basel, the Talacher house in Zurich, the Bonnet house in Geneva) were built; in Solothurn the fortifications were completed with the bastion of China Orso; and we also remember, scattered throughout the countryside, castles and palaces (Waldegg, Solothurn, Oberdiesbach, Mauensee, Sizers). The artistic activity in other fields is essentially limited to the highly developed one of craftsmanship. The treasures of the guilds, churches and convents were then enriched or renovated (museums in Basel, Bern, Zurich, sacristies of Engelberg, Lucerne, Schwyz, Solothurn). Known portraitist was Kaspar Meglinger in Lucerne; in Zurich the draftsmen and engravers Rudolf and Conrad Meyer worked, in Freiburg the altar painter PS Wuilleret; in Bern the portrait painter J. Duenz and the portrait and historical scene painter Gregor Brandmüller in Basel. The sculptors Enrico and Melchiorre Fischer (Beromünster choir stalls), Peter Spring (Freiburg) and Johann Ulrich Raber (Lucerne) worked at home. Renowned painters abroad were Jos. Werner, J. Rud. Huber and I. Rud. Byss. Rud. Huber e I. Rud. Byss. Rud. Huber e I. Rud. Byss.
The growing absolutism of the secular and spiritual authorities is due from the beginning of the century. XVIII monumental buildings expressing an artistic culture based on wealth. In the Catholic regions, the old Benedictine and Cistercian convents, which had come to a new flourish, welcomed the Baroque movement which had begun in southern Germany.
The churches and convents of Muri (1696, Moosbrugger building with a central plan), Disentis (1696), Rheinau (1705, Beer), Saint Urban (1711, Beer), Einsiedeln (1717, Moosbrugger), Katharinental (1715, Beer), Bngelberg (1730, Rueff); then, in the second half of the century, the church of China Gallo (1755), the collegiate churches of China Orso in Soletta (1762, Pisoni), and of San Marcello in Delsberg (1762, PF Paris and Pisoni), and the typical Baroque rural churches in Ettiswil (1773) and Ruswil (1783). Interesting buildings in the Protestant regions are the church on the Fusterie in Geneva (1707, Vennes) and the church of the Holy Spirit in Bern (1722, Schildknecht).
In secular architecture, since the beginning of the century. XVIII, French taste predominated (with a few exceptions, such as the palace of the Ambassadors in Solothurn and various buildings in Schaffhausen). The stately homes and public buildings built at that time in Basel (by Hemeling, Fechter, Werenfels), in Bern (by HJ Dünz, Stürler, and, above all, by Schildknecht and Sprüngli), in Geneva (by Br. Blondel the Younger and Abeille), the Morf guild houses in Zurich, the country houses of Hindelbark, Thunstetten, Prangins, Coppet, Fernay and the Besenval, Steinbrugg and Blunsenstein palaces near Solothurn. And a harmonious fusion of new architecture and landscape character was always sought, even in remote regions (merchant houses in the canton of Appenzell and in Toggenburg). The artistic activity was growing in all branches. The need to animate the numerous buildings that arose then with a rich and varied decoration gave sculpture new tasks, the solution of which was, at first, entrusted to notable artists called from southern Germany and Austria (JA Feuchtmayer, A. Dirr), while later they operated, eg. in the church of China Orso in Solothurn, Swiss sculptors such as JB Babel, Francesco and Carlo Pozzi and Doret. Outside Switzerland JJ and JB Keller (Paris), Melchior Kambli (Potsdam), Alexander Trippel (Rome, Copenhagen, Berlin), G. Pedrozzi (Potsdam), C. and G. Rusconi (Rome) worked as sculptors, founders and plasterers., Tencalla-Mazzetti (Venice, Udine), B. Papa (England, Spain, Venice, Turin), JA Nahl (Cassel) and the famous branch engraver and medalist JA
The minor arts continued to occupy an important place. The choir stalls in Saint-Urban (1701-15) and St. Gallen (1768), the goldsmiths in Basel, Bern, Zurich, Schaffhausen and, later, the ceramics in Schooren (Zurich) and Nyon, are especially worthy of mention.. In the countryside a rustic art flourished, with strong traditions, which developed its own style in the artefacts and architecture, which differed according to the region. Even painting (portrait, landscape, genre scenes) had a rich development in the individual cities, although painters from southern Germany were called to decorate the new Catholic churches (Stauder, Hermann, Spiegler). The illuminators Arlaud, Gardelle and Massot, the painters Liotard, Jean Huber, J.-P. St. Ours and PL Delarive worked in Geneva. In Zurich, China Gessner, Usteri and Heinrich Füssli, later industrious in England, they gave impetus to pre-romantic painting. Originals from Winterthur were the portrait painter Anton Graff, very well known abroad, and J. Ludwig Aberli, who settled in Bern and formed there, together with Freudenberger, König and Mind (all three pupils of E. Handmann), Lory and Dunker the group of “Berner Kleinmeister”, known for their landscape paintings and small format genre scenes. From central Switzerland were Melchior Wyrsch, director of the Besançon academy, Felix Maria Diogg and Joseph Reinhard; by Waadt F. Sablet, court painter of Louis XVI, and the watercolorist LR Ducros, active mainly in southern Italy. In Basel they represent the style of the late century. XVIII Peter and Samuel Birman, JJ Biedermann and the publisher von Mechel.
The art of the century. XIX and contemporary contents. – As in all other eras, so also at the end of the century. XVIII the contemporary emergence of various currents is characteristic of art in Switzerland. In architecture, which, together with the imposing compactness of the forms, also loses its pre-eminent position, classicism is expressed with stylistic purity only in a few individual buildings; after 1815 the Biedermeier style slowly spread; and from the middle of the century. XIX predominates a mixture of different styles. Since 1920, under the influence of Le Corbusier, a progressive clarification of modern trends takes place. Most important are the claims in the field of painting. The development that began in Geneva and Zurich was fruitfully continued after the closer political and spiritual fusion of the individual regions. At the same time there is everywhere a more decisive emergence of the national character, not so much through a determined style as in pursuing a common trend. Since even now Switzerland remains connected to neighboring centers of culture through intense reciprocal relations; but in the interior the boundaries of the different areas of influence are confused.
In Geneva, thanks to the activity of the academy, an uninterrupted artistic tradition had been formed since the end of the 18th century; it was therefore no mere chance that at the beginning of the century. In the 19th century, painting received new impulses from this city where Adam Wolfgang and Rudolf Töpffer worked at the time and where JL Agasse, an animal painter active in England, was originally from. Of the generation of painters born around 1800, Ch. Gleyre and Leopoldo Robert enjoyed wide favor abroad; also worthy of mention at home are Br. Diday, JL Lugardon, M. de Meuron, Aurèle Robert, Ludwig Vogel, Martin Disteli (notable draftsman of political caricatures), H. Hess, JJ Ulrich and W. Scheuchzer. From the slightly younger group of A. Calame, Barthélémy Menn and JG Steffan came the Serior landscape painters; above all painters of genre and historical scenes were A. van Muyden, L. Girardet, A. Landerer; CM Deschwanden became known with altar paintings. The new realism was represented after 1850 by Robert Zünd, Frank Buchser, Karl Grob, Robert Koller, Albert Ankere, Ernst Stückelberg; from these came Arnold Böcklin. Contemporaries were E. Castans, A. Lugardon, A. de Meuron, A. Veillon, R. Ritz, B. Vautier, Br. Bocion. O. Fröhlicher and A. Stäbli were known as Impressionists; alongside them should be remembered Karl Stauffer, Hans Sandreuter, Albert Welti and E. Burnand. A new era began around 1880 with Ferdinando Hodler, who merged Alemannic and Southern characters, French formal correctness and the intensity of the inner life of the Germans in a style that can be called Swiss; and at the same time he followed the path that led beyond the conquests of Impressionism. Alongside Hodler, Max Buri, Cuno Amiet, Giovanni Giacometti, E. Vallet, Félix Velloton, Wilh became known. Balmer, Heinrich Altherr, Hans Beatus Wieland and E. Kreidolf. Among the younger modern painters there are HA Pellegrini, M. Barrand, PB Barth, Hans Brühlmann, N. Stöcklin, H. Berger, P. Bodmer, A. Blanchet, R. Auberjonois. There are few representatives of sculpture until recently. J. Pradier arrived in Paris in the first half of the century. XIX in eminent position; at home after 1850 V. Vela, R. Christen, M. Leu, F. Schlöth, Karl Stauffer, also known, during his last years, as a painter and engraver. Rhodes v. Niederhäusern and Carl Burckhardt established themselves after 1900.